All research that involves the use of humans (e.g., survey, experimental, evaluation, biomedical research) must be approved by Texas A&M University's Institutional Review Board (IRB), according to the University's Assurance of Compliance Agreement with the Department of Health and Human Services.
The IRB is charged with the responsibility of maintaining institutional compliance with the U.S. Office of Human Research Protections (OHRP) regulations regarding the use of human subjects in research.
Human subject is defined by the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) as "a living individual about whom an investigator obtains (1) data through intervention or interaction with the individual or (2) identifiable private information." The regulations extend to the use of human organs, tissue, and body fluids from individually identifiable human subjects as well as to graphic, written, or recorded information derived from individually identifiable human subjects.
Research is defined in the CFR as "a systematic investigation designed to develop and contribute to generalizable knowledge."
Examples of activities that constitute research include:
Thus, research with human subjects includes survey and interview research, as well as evaluation studies.
An example of an activity that is not research would be any evaluation of an employee, course, program, or service in which such evaluation is not designed to lead to generalizable knowledge. If an activity does not involve research, it does not require approval or review by the IRB. If the investigator has any doubt as to whether an activity constitutes research, he or she should contact either Texas A&M's Human Subjects' Protection Program (HSPP) at (979) 458-4067 or the TEES Research Compliance Officer, Brian Ridenour, at (979) 458-2586.
For all research activity, the investigator--whether an administrator, faculty member, staff member, or student--must file a protocol, or description of the procedure(s) to be used to gather information from subjects, with the IRB. The IRB must then approve the protocol prior to the collection of any data or research information from the research participants.
The guidelines have provisions for exemption of some studies that involve no risk to subjects and for expedited review for some types of studies involving no more than minimal risk to subjects. The determination of the type of review required must (by federal mandate) be made by the IRB.
Those planning to conduct any type of research with humans, including survey or interview research or evaluation studies, should complete well in advance of data collection an application.
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